بسم اللہ الرحمٰن الرحیم

The Existence of God – A Simple Explanation


Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali writes:

“The mere physicist is like an ant who, crawling on a sheet of paper and observing black letters spreading over it, should refer the cause to the pen alone. The astronomer is like an ant of somewhat wider vision who should catch sight of the fingers moving the pen, i.e., he knows that the elements are under the power of the stars, but he does not know that the stars are under the power of the angels. Thus, owing to the different degrees of perception in people, disputes must arise in tracing effects to causes. Those whose eyes never see beyond the world of phenomena are like those who mistake servants of the lowest rank for the king. The laws of phenomena must be constant, or there could be no such thing as science; but it is a great error to mistake the slaves for the master.

As long as this difference in the perceptive faculty of observers exists, disputes must necessarily go on. It is as if some blind men, hearing that an elephant had come to their town, should go and examine it. The only knowledge of it which they can obtain comes through the sense of touch; so one handles the animal’s leg, another his tusk, another his ear, and, according to their several perceptions, pronounce it to be a column, a thick pole, or a quilt, each taking a part for the whole. So the physicist and astronomer confound the laws they perceive with the Lawgiver.

There are some who, failing to find God by observation, conclude that there is no God and that this world of wonders made itself, or existed from everlasting. They are like a man who, seeing a beautifully written letter, should suppose that it had written itself without a writer, or had always existed. People in this state of mind are so far gone in error that it is of little use to argue with them. Such are some of the physicists and astronomers to whom we referred above.” (The Alchemy of Happiness)

Notes:

We should be ready to discuss the question of God’s existence.  Atheist use logic to support their arguments and actively convert people to their way of thinking. The same tool should be used to either correct their faulty reasoning or to help sincere inquirers find their way to a possibility of believing in a Supreme Being.  This can make all the difference to the young people who are still open to see both sides of the question. Once they are converted to atheism, it is too late to expect objectivity from them. If a person wants to debate the subject just to show off his intellectual superiority, it is better not to waste one’s energy.

Reason alone cannot conclusively prove the existence of God, but it does not mean it should be disregarded altogether.  Other methods that lead to perfect certainty and enlightenment will be discussed later. 

Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (a.s) writes:
“Of course it is true that reason is not without its use and its benefit, and when have I ever said that it is useless? Nevertheless, how can we escape the obvious fact that through reason and conjecture, alone, we cannot attain the treasure of perfect certainty which can be achieved through the combination of reason and revelation…” (Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya, Part 4. pg. 79)

There can never be physical evidence of God because God is not a physical being, so methods of experimental sciences will not work here. But methods of logical analysis are used. These methods of logic have been investigated in detail, and they form the basis of all historical, legal, and sociological analysis.  

The Kalam Cosmological Argument:
Everything that begins to exist has a cause. This universe began to exist, therefore, it must have a cause.

The following will be discussed:

1. The universe itself is the cause.
2. The universe came into existence due to probability.
3. If not the universe itself or probability, then there is some other cause for its existence. It is the first cause.
4. The first cause must be uncaused.
5. The first cause must have certain attributes.

1. The universe itself is the cause.
The universe cannot exist before its own self to create itself. So since it exists, there must be something else that caused it to exist.
(The universe cannot be the cause itself because then the universe would have to exist and not-exist at the same time but that is illogical. Therefore the universe cannot be the cause of its own existence.)

2. The universe came into existence due to probability.
Probability does not cause anything to exist. Probability is the mathematical analysis of random phenomena. The mathematical description of the universes’ chances of existing does not imply that the mathematical formula was the cause of the universe coming into existence. The universe reflects mathematical structures, but mathematics doesn’t cause anything, it just describes the circumstances. Just as Newton’s Laws of motion describe what will happen to an object that is moving, but the laws themselves do not cause that object to move.

3. If not the universe itself or probability, then there is some other cause for its existence.
If we say something caused it, then you may say who or what caused that “something” to exist. There has to be a final cause. Otherwise, we will keep on tracing causes infinitely. Since we exist, therefore, it means the chain of causes has to end at one point in time. Where ever it stops, that is the ultimate cause of creation. We can conclude that for anything to exist there must be a final cause. For example, the domino effect, there’s always one single domino at the very end of the chain that triggers the rest of them.


4. The First cause must be uncaused.

a. There are efficient causes in the world (i.e., producing causes).
b. Nothing can be the efficient cause of itself, for it would have to be prior to itself in order to cause itself.
c. There cannot be an infinite regress of (essentially related) efficient caused, for unless there is a first cause of the series there would be no causality in the series.
d. Therefore, there must be a first, uncaused, efficient Cause of all efficient causality in the world.
e. Everyone gives to this the name of God.

Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (a.s) writes: 
“The second proof of the existence of God that the Holy Quran has set forth is that God is the ultimate cause of all causes, as it is said:
وَأَنَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ الْمُنتَهَىٰ

That is, if we observe carefully we find that the entire universe is bound together in a system of cause and effect. This system is at the root of all knowledge. No part of creation is outside this system. Some things are the roots of others and some are branches. A cause may be primary or may be the effect of another cause, and that in its turn may be the effect of still another cause, and so on. Now, it is not possible that in this finite world this pattern of cause and effect should have no limit and should be infinite. We are compelled to acknowledge that it must terminate with some ultimate cause. The ultimate cause is God. Open your eyes and see that the verse
وَأَنَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ الْمُنتَهَىٰ
And that to your Lord do all things ultimately go; (The Holy Qur’an 53:43)
sets forth this argument very concisely and affirms that the system of cause and effect terminates in God.” (The Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam, pg. 88)


Not everything has a start of an endpoint.
A circle has no starting or an endpoint. 
God has no start or an end.

 

What is the nature of the First cause?

It must be uncreated, be conscious, have knowledge, power and the will to create.
a). Conscious – Unconscious things do not have the ability to affect change. A rock is unconscious, can a rock affect change?
b). Complete Knowledge – Without knowledge you cannot do anything. An example of a person trying to make tea, who does not know of the components needed to make tea let alone even know what tea is. Knowledge contains the following: What, where, how.
c). All-Powerful – Power is needed to put knowledge to work. A blind man knows of reading but does not have the power to read so his knowledge of reading is pointless.
d). The All-Wise – Will is required to deliberately execute a purpose. Will contains: Why and When.

These are the attributes of the First cause, which we have derived logically. God of Islam has the same attributes:

God is :
Al-Latif – The Subtle (non-physical)
Al-Hayy – The Living (conscious) 
All-Aleem, The All-Knowing
Al-Qadeer – The All-Powerful
Al-Hakim – The All-Wise

Additional attributes are derived from the above argument:
Al-Awwal – The First, preceding all others.
Al-Badi – The Originator (The Contriver, the Originator who first makes something new and original, the One who brings something into existence for the first time, and not after the similitude of anything existing before it.)
Al-Khaliq – The Creator
Al-Musawwir – The Giver of Form
Al Muqit – The Maintainer

The First Cause initiates the unfolding of the complex phenomenon of creation. Laws of physics are defined. Sub-atomic particles, atoms, gases, stars, galaxies, etc. are created.

The Holy Qur’an in regards to the Big Bang:

1. Big Bang: (21:31)
Do not the disbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were a closed-up mass, then We opened them out?
2. Expanding Universe: (51:48)
And we have built the heaven with might and we continue to expand it indeed.
3. Conclusion of the Universe: (21:105)
Remember the day when We shall roll up the heavens like the rolling up of written scrolls by a scribe. As We began the first creation, so shall We repeat it — a promise binding upon Us; We shall certainly perform it.
4. Repeat of the Universe: (14:49)
On the day when this earth will be changed into another earth, and the heavens too; and they will all appear before Allah, the One, the Most Supreme;